Forum 6: Cyber Crime

This blog focuses on cybercrime, I would focus more on political dimensions of cyber security and cyber war in class. Cybercrime remains a crucial component in the larger framing of cybersecurity thus, I would like you to watch the two/three video presentations and article on cyber security/cyber crime hosted on the Google Drive and discuss how you feel cybercrime is challenging established legal and security norms in the United States as well as the rest of the world.

Forum will be live until 04/16 Midnight

G Drive link: http://tinyurl.com/mtyqo62


48 thoughts on “Forum 6: Cyber Crime

    Emilio Nilooban said:
    April 11, 2016 at 2:34 am

    Cybercrime is challenging legal and security norms for countries around the world because it is a form of crime that is relatively new for most countries and specialists that are required in investigating cybercrimes are limited. Like with any crime, cybercrimes will be dealt under the same legal procedure. “Securing a criminal conviction is no easy feat – witnesses need to be found, evidence needs to be secured and a case needs to be marshalled”. In order to scavenge for evidence, people who have expertise in forensic cyber analysis will be required in these investigations. In addition, catching and identifying cyber criminals is a huge challenge and, for the most part, the majority of perpetrators end up getting away with it based on their acquired ability to remain anonymous. It’s also worth mentioning that even if criminals or suspects were identified, if they are located in different parts of the world; how is the US going to collaborate with other countries to apprehend them? Although the US has the USA PATRIOT Act in which instills cybercrime, enforcing it on China within international law creates red tape. Even with the mutual legal assistance treaty the US and China has, there are exemptions and factors that can limit or even deny assistance for investigations concerning a cyber crime. If that’s the case, cyber investigations that require looking into foreign computer systems will go nowhere and justice for the victims effected by these crimes will not be compensated.

      Andrew Reiley said:
      April 13, 2016 at 10:57 am

      Emilio,
      After watching the TED talk video, you can see how ex hackers are being used to track down active hackers. Of course, they use the means of social media in order to find the bad hackers. I guess it takes a hacker nerd to find another hacker nerd. For example, the hackers from Russia all used Facebook and although they were trying to be smart about how much information they put on the web, they still put up pictures of their hacking company outing. From which, the investigator was able to see who they were physically and their spouses. Luckily, the spouse put up all her info which tracked them right to the criminals. I think that if more and more ex hackers are either arrested or just converted to government employees, then there will be a higher chance of catching others and preventing them from stealing our files, money, credit card numbers, etc.

        Cory Latour said:
        April 17, 2016 at 11:37 pm

        Andrew, you raise an interesting point about converting the criminals to government employees. I agree with the statement in principle, although I am still a little bit uncomfortable about giving these criminals access to such secure government systems. They may not fit the prototypical ‘criminal’ profile, but that is why they are threatening. However, the fact remains that there exists a shortage of people with the necessary skills that are willing to work in the public sector, which makes the possibility of converting the apprehended cyber criminals enticing. It just begs the question: how much can we really trust them with our most secure network?

      Sam McGowan said:
      April 14, 2016 at 4:08 pm

      Emilio, I appreciate your insight and post. I agree with you about what you have to say regarding the difficulties that come about when US law enforcement agencies attempt to gather information regarding cyber crimes. What makes it even more difficult is how there are a number of exemptions that exist concerning international law, especially when it comes to China. Your post also made me think about how US law enforcement agencies have been turning to arrested cyber criminals in order to gain insight about how to best combat cyber crime cases. Many of these people are younger, and have important things to contribute when it comes to effectively tackling cyber crime. I recently read an article about the Pentagon is actively trying to recruit potential employees from Silicon Valley, all in an effort to change the work environment at the Pentagon and make it more suited to the technical, and creative nature of the cyber world.

    Emilio Nilooban said:
    April 11, 2016 at 12:35 pm

    After watching the South2North interview on cybercrime, I also can see how cybercrime itself can help strengthen a country’s overall security and re-define its norms. Even though these crimes have led to disastrous consequences, it at least grabbed the government’s attention to take initiative in enhancing cyber security and solving cyber-related investigations. Towards the end, it was mentioned that more time should be invested in understanding the minds and human activity of hackers themselves instead of developing defensive tools. Perhaps this is an area that they want to dig deeper into. Again, the government’s entrance into cyberspace is like entering the fog of war. Governments don’t usually know how to regulate this space inside and outside of their borders.

    Furthermore, it was also mentioned that although we spend so much time in ameliorating defense in cybersecurity, those tools alone won’t be sufficient enough to combat against cyber crimes. There will always be expert hackers who will bypass these security walls and the only way to counter them will be to think a step further then them. All this being said, it all comes down to the question of whether or not we are able to have security while still having our liberties which includes the right to privacy. In a sense, cybercrime is challenging countries’ legal and security norms by making them reflect on what they value more, what they have to sacrfiice or what they can do to both preserve liberty and security.

      Andrew Reiley said:
      April 13, 2016 at 11:21 am

      Emilio, your response is all very interesting and I completely agree with what you have said. The only way anything ever gets better is to have someone mess up or bypass old versions. This is particularly true with technology. As strong as our cyber securities are, the hackers will always get around them, which causes the security teams to develop better programs to protect our public from hackers. But they will always come back.
      Another thing that is interesting about this South2North piece is about how China and the US is in a a little bit of a cyber war. Instead of weapons being built for a ton of money, people can sell their programs, which require much less materials and time, and sell them for about the same amount of money as weapons developers can make.
      There will always be a push for more securities, so as a result, there will always be hackers.

    Andrew Reiley said:
    April 13, 2016 at 11:08 am

    I think it is pretty interesting and messed up how easily people can steal credit card numbers. I was aware that North America has been the slowest to instill the chip readers in cards, but I had no idea why we were so late in doing that. It is cool how the chips are used so that people cannot use a mobile card reader and take your number from far away, instead the chip is able to scramble your number so people can’t get it. Another interesting thing and a little unsettling is that some restaurants and gas stations will have the primary card reader for the sale of the good, yet another card reader under the table to take your number. A little scary.
    It is also interesting that since we do not know who the other cyber criminals are in the world, there is no way of tracking them down and using the boys to hurt them. Mainly, there are just nerds all around the world hacking our cards and shifting the money around the world electronically.

      Trent Rosenberg said:
      April 16, 2016 at 8:34 am

      Andrew, I think you brought up an interesting point about restaurants having two card readers, with one specifically for stealing card numbers. I think people forget how easily it can be for people like waiters or any business in general to get ahold of someone’s card number, especially when we hand it to them. My question to you, but also in genral is does something like this make you more likely to use cash? Or does the convenience of a debit/credit card out weigh the negative effects like this one?

        Andrew Reileu said:
        April 17, 2016 at 9:10 am

        Trent, it certainly is an interesting question. When I have cash on person and am in a place where I can see the transaction being made, I usually will use it. However, I do use my credit and debit cards often, even at restaurants. Usually a credit card can be cancelled pretty quickly, so I do not worry much. Also if someone found out that a restaurant is doing that, I would think that the restaurant would get in serious trouble. For that reason, I continue to use cards. A card is also very handy when the bill is greater than the amount of cash on hand.

        Dylan Kirby said:
        April 17, 2016 at 3:22 pm

        Andrew, I think you brought up a very interesting discussion topic about restaurants and other establishments having two card readers. I was unaware of that. Furthermore, Trent your discussion question that you mentioned asking about if we will start to use cash more instead of credit cards raises another alarming question about ATM’s. If we as a society will start to use more cash instead of our credit cards and debit cards, that infers that we will use ATM machines more, thus they will be in higher demand and become more susceptible to hackers some how either stealing chips/cc numbers or however else they would be able to store account information on.

        Michael LeFevre said:
        April 17, 2016 at 6:17 pm

        This reminds of me of a time when I went out to eat at a Chinese restaurant, and the next week had $3,500 stollen from my account, which was used to buy computer equipment in China. Before taking this class, I never realized how easy it was for criminals and even regular businesses to destroy and steal people’s personal information. We have seen some advancements with the ability to have a wallet that blocks the card reader signals, but with the evolution of technology and ability to use your phone to pay for everyday goods, I do not think that we will be able to keep up with the ever-growing demand for accessibility. People do not realize the precautions that come into place when using credit card numbers and their cellular devices. Until we can safely secure everyone’s information, I think cash is the safest bet in today’s society.

        Timothy Lasusa said:
        April 17, 2016 at 8:25 pm

        I think all of you guys raise some interesting points. I think Michaels story about his card information getting stolen is one example of how we should wary of scams like these. My question becomes how will using bitcoins change the way scammers try and attack our accounts? Would using Bitcoins make us safer? I think it is something we should think about in our future as we more into a even more digital age. Would it be possible for us in the future to completely get rid of cards and instead find a solution that is harder to hack or steal information? Im curious as to see what will happen in the future to help avoid scams.

        Trent Rosenberg said:
        April 17, 2016 at 11:13 pm

        Tim, I think the bitcoin idea is a very interesting one. Dylan I also think you brought up a good point about the problems ATM’s face in general, but I also think it would change the way banks run if people wanted to use more cash. For example instead of having direct deposit and a card linked to that account instead we might see more people simply cashing out checks and for lack of a better term “stashing it in their mattresses”. Michael, your last point about how most people are generally unaware of the risks with using cards is well said, and I think your story only reinforces that idea. However, I am skeptical that the system will ever be truly safe to use. People that intent on stealing will always find a way.

        Jake Levin said:
        April 17, 2016 at 11:51 pm

        I worked as a waiter last summer and the point you made about how easy it is for a restaurant to gather information about a customer is very true. Patrons of the restaurant would give me their credit card to pay and wouldn’t pay any attention to what I was doing after they gave me the card. Although in liberal societies such as the U.S. you definitely wouldn’t be able to get away with it. Even then, if I didn’t assume that people weren’t closely monitoring their credit card bill it would have been extremely easy to give myself a much larger tip than customers actually gave me. With the emerging security threat of cyber crime we definitely need to reevaluate our level of trust in electronic forms of payment.

      Tom Mathiasen said:
      April 17, 2016 at 12:51 pm

      Yeah, it seems like the ways we protect individuals seem to happen after a cyber crime occurs. We never seem to be ahead of the criminals, so adding security layers after the fact makes it seems as though we are always a step behind. That poeses threats to not only law enforcement, but the companies that keep our personal information like SSNs and financial records. More transparency and cooperation between financial institutions and government could help us get ahead of cyber crime.

      Timothy Lasusa said:
      April 17, 2016 at 7:35 pm

      What I find kind of interesting and somewhat comical is the idea that these hacking groups are running themselves as though they are legitimate businesses. They are stealing millions of dollars from banks, corporations, and people and yet they openly advertise things like job positions and who they are, what their twitter handle is, and despite all this it seems like there is nothing that can be done about it. I feel as though these hacking groups have somewhat tricked us into thinking that being a cyber criminal is actually a legitimate profession. I think the fact that very little can be done about cyber criminals at this moment makes it somewhat of a free-for-all for the hackers of the world and unless things are done to control hacking around the world, this will not change.

        cscott66 said:
        April 17, 2016 at 10:15 pm

        I agree. There is no repurcussions right now towards cyber crime. It is so hard to trace where the attacks come from and these groups just sit back and laugh. These groups feel almost untouchable and another issue is that many people don’t know about hacking and these groups. There needs to be more awareness by the common citizen on these issues and a consertive effort in stoping these groups by governments as a collective unit

    Sam McGowan said:
    April 14, 2016 at 4:03 pm

    According to James Lynne, 30,000 websites are infected with new viruses each day, and 80% of these are small business websites. This is particularly alarming because these small business websites tend to have basic protection services, and many times the small business owners are not aware, at least early on, of the dangers cybercrime poses. To make matters worse, the people behind the most sophisticated attacks are highly organized and very professional. Some of them are even offering their services to people and companies who wish to eliminate their competition by way of sponsoring cyber crimes. I found James’ example about how a prospective employee could enter into an office with coffee all over his resume, and then ask the desk worker if she could put that person’s USB into her computer so a new resume could be printed. In just that simple task, a virus could be transmitted into the company’s computer, thus making company information available to the hacker.

    As the videos and article highlights, cyber crime is presenting a number of challenges in terms of the legal and security norms in the United States, as well as in the rest of the world. Most importantly, in my opinion at least, is the fact that the Internet is available pretty much everywhere around the world. With this in mind, there needs to be a transparent and agreed upon system in which Internet governance can be carried out. However, as the article suggest, countries such as the Chinese have short term interests not to come up with cyber crime legislation that the US can get behind because committing cyber crimes against the US is in their economic interests. Furthermore, it seems there is huge disagreements when it comes to international legislation and legally defined statues about what a “protected computer” entails. In addition, there are huge disagreements when it comes to the “value of information” that is obtained by hackers, which makes it hard to prosecute international cyber criminals. Jurisdiction is thus called into question and the nature of extraterritoriality means that some states are exempted from abiding by US laws regarding cyber crimes, intellectual property, and other things. Above all else, the biggest takeaway that I have from watching these videos and reading this article is that there is definitely a need for international laws regarding the Internet that are agreed upon by all major players and also that there is a need for a better understanding about the repercussions/penalties that could be imposed on countries that violate these international laws.

      Emilio Nilooban said:
      April 16, 2016 at 4:31 pm

      Sam, I think your final statement sums up what needs to be done in order to regulate cyberspace – a space in which ultimately connects everyone from around the world no matter how closed off some countries want to be. There will always be people from different countries using the internet to bridge themselves to individuals from other places – even if it means using illegal means to accomplish it (i.e. bypassing blocks). No one can deny that cyberspace is intertwined and countries have to make an effort to come together and create cyber legislation that would bring global order and prevent any sort of conflict from arising.

        Michael LeFevre said:
        April 17, 2016 at 6:10 pm

        Emilio, how do you believe that countries with such varying options and views on cyberspace can cooperate and create a strategy to combat these criminals? I too believe that there needs to be a way, but I find it very difficult and with the upcoming election, I do not believe many countries will want to work with the United States, no matter whom wins. How can we work with countries, which are using the same power and ability that these criminals are using, to create a plan to stop it? I think the cyberspace is so unique and interesting and allows for anonymity, which will never force a country to respond to an action. We have seen attacks and hacks from China among United States citizens and corporations, but have had no, or a very slim, response. Do you also think other governments are potentially using this power negatively?

    Dylan Kirby said:
    April 14, 2016 at 10:47 pm

    The first video that I watched was Misha Glenny’s talk on cyber violence. His talk really showed the viewer just how perverse cyber crimes are. Unlike most crimes that happen on the streets, cyber crimes lack transparency or in other words there are no real identifiers to signal that you have been a victim until you have either had money stolen, or other precious documents. In this case, your own computer, tablet, or whatever else you own acts as the weakest link and can be controlled without even noticing.

    “leagues” of cyber criminals can be found on any corner of the world. A specific attack can be incubated in Kazakstan, performed on an institution in California and than have the money transferred to Dubai. It is this scale that makes it obvious for governments to establish legal/security guidelines.

    However, due to the collusive between cyber criminals and for instance the “FSB” it is almost impossible for governments to reach such guidelines. Furthermore, major state actors are engaging in nefarious cyber crime to reap the short term rewards of economic gain and further delaying the process of figuring out a way to protect the cyber world. Although there are trust issues between different countries, it is vital that our government and other dominant countries create a standard to abide by and stop pursuing short term gains because that is only going to worsen the long term outlook of internet security

      Cory Latour said:
      April 17, 2016 at 11:06 pm

      Dylan, you continuously bring strong analysis into our discussions, week in and week out. I think you bring up an interesting point when you mentioned the collusive behavior. Do you think the United States is involved in such collusive behavior? It reminds me of our past discussions about Edward Snowden. Is he a hero or a traitor? He exposed the shady behavior of the Department of Defense, but at what cost? Do you think there should be total transparency between a state and its citizens? Or, is ignorance bliss? These are all imminent questions that need addressing, as technology continues to evolve and evolve. If enforced and regulated properly, technology will be beneficial. The Internet of Things (IoT) report we read had hopeful projections for the future. But do you think criminals will eventually be able to attack everything?

    Trent rosenberg said:
    April 16, 2016 at 8:20 am

    I think it’s pretty clear that cyber crime is challenging “normal” crime in many obvious and distinct ways. First off, is the point Dylan brought up, which is that this new cyber crime lacks a transparency that traditional crime does. It’s the idea also that someone can have access to your computer and you don’t even know it.

    Finally the last thing about cyber crime is that it’s just so new. It’s not easy to keep up with the level of safistication some have when it comes to computers and the Internet in general. Therefore in order to help catch these new cyber criminals it will be up to goverments to work together and establish regulations and procedures. However, as I think Sam pointed out this is not always as easy as it would seem for a multitude of reasons. It will sure be interesting to see how this plays out in the end.

    I think cyber also challenges our ideas of what a criminal looks like. I’m sure we all have an idea of what we think a traditional criminal looks like but according to Misha Glenny it would seem that that perception doesn’t apply to cyber criminals. It seems that these criminals are younger men (usually) don’t appear to be engaged in criminal activities. Personally I think this comes from a lack of cyber criminals having to engage personally with someone in order to commit the crime. It’s much easier to do bad things when you can’t put a face to the people your attacking.

      Henry Preston said:
      April 16, 2016 at 10:40 am

      Trent, I think you made some good points. Regarding American cyber policy, I think the most important issue you raised was the need for cooperation between states. Due to the nature of the Internet, ie being stateless, one nation would be unable to effective police and monitor the entire Internet. Another issue that the United States is faced with is a shortage of hackers and other tech geniuses to work within government cybercrime divisions

        Trent Rosenberg said:
        April 17, 2016 at 11:27 pm

        Henry, thats a good point as well. Its not just about cooperation but also about having enough workers with the skills necessary to police things like this. Unfortunately, I’m guessing that if you have the skills necessary to work in a cybercrime unit, then you also have the skills to get passed them and therefore might find it more appealing (and profitable) to instead be a hacker. Most probably don’t have the same moral compass as the reformed hacker that appeared in the video provided.

        Jake Levin said:
        April 17, 2016 at 11:39 pm

        Touching on the last point you made, I think the shortage of people in the United States to combat cyber crimes is one of the most important issues that needs to be addresse when analyzing the emerging security threat of cyber crime. The people who can best counter and monitor acts of cyber crime are the individuals who possess the ability to commit such criminal acts in the first place. Although I think recruiting tech geniuses from the Silicon Valley to work for the government’s cyber crime division is a step in the right direction, I feel that more things need to be done to convince hackers that fighting cyber crime, rather then engaging in it is in their best interest. More lucrative salaries for people fighting cyber crime would definitely improve our online policing presence. Another potential way to expand our cyber crime capabilities would be to offer hackers that are identified and arrested by the government a trade off between helping fight cyber crime or jail time

      Emilio Nilooban said:
      April 16, 2016 at 3:03 pm

      Trent, I think you raise an interesting point in regards to our perception on what a cyber criminal would look like. We can’t simply connect characteristics and behaviors to cyber criminals since cyberspace enables people to remain under the radar and put on an alias that can throw authorities off. In addition, it’s also worth highlighting the point you made after that; saying that cyber criminals commit crimes towards a victim without actually interacting with them. That being the case, I would state that our perceptions of the ordinary criminal will have to step aside from the traditional investigative framework since a cyber criminal can technically be anyone. Within cyberspace, I agree that people would be more inclined to commit crimes, having to feel no personal connection with their victims; in addition to acknowledging the odds of getting away with it.

      Tom Mathiasen said:
      April 17, 2016 at 12:46 pm

      I think the fact that you can’t put a face to the criminal does make people want to commit these crimes more. Therefore, your observations are good ones Trent. The fact that these individuals feel they can get away with this stuff poses a serious challenge to law enforcement. Being online and being anonymous so to speak, makes it harder for law enforcement to find that digital fingerprint.

        Dylan Kirby said:
        April 17, 2016 at 6:31 pm

        Tom and Trent, both excellent points about individuals who will be motivated more to commit crimes due to having such anonymity. Just think about the dark web and all the people who use Tor to further prevent detection.

    Henry Preston said:
    April 16, 2016 at 10:33 am

    Global cybercrime inherently challenges states ability to police and protect, and challenges it in a way that negates much of the hard power that states have relied on so heavily for their security in the past. This challenge is exposes security gaps in many nations, specifically liberal Western states, and has not yet been given the same priority and infrastructure as classic security issues. This problem will continue to plague the U.S. until it forms a strong multi-national collective to jointly securitize the Internet. This coalition would need to involve China and Russia in order to produce meaningful results.

    Tom Mathiasen said:
    April 17, 2016 at 12:43 pm

    Cyber crime poses on of the bigger threats to law enforcement officials must deal with. Between the videos and the articles, I think there are serious issues that must be addressed. Firstly, as some have mentioned in their posts, it is an unconventional type of crime. Therefore finding the culprits is harder as the digital fingerprint is harder to identify. Therefore, these hackers and cyber criminals are able to commit these crimes with law enforcement having very little ability to actually find those responsible.

    The other crimes that they can commit, including identity theft, may seem hard to find until the money disappears from and account or the victim checks their financial reports. Therefore, the criminal can commit their crime and it can be a matter of months before the victim finds out.

    I think the thing that is most concerning to law enforcement is that the lack of international cooperation makes it increasing more difficult. International laws from security organizations need to work together to develop a more transparent way to catch these criminals. I would like to see the United States take the lead on this. It is a golden opportunity for us to put a major dent in the ways in which cyber criminals commit crimes.

      Michael LeFevre said:
      April 17, 2016 at 6:05 pm

      Tom,
      I too believe that the most difficult aspect of controlling cybercrime, is the lack of international cooperation. As we’ve seen throughout history, when countries and states have a common issue, they usually devise a plan or organization to help prevent the issue from continuing. But in this case, there are so many different opinions and lack of cohesion, that I am very wary of the implications that will arise when countries differ regarding cybercrime. It is an international issue, but we haven’t been dealing with it as such. As for the United States being the policy entrepreneur, I think it would be very difficult to do, just because of the lack of knowledge among Americans regarding this topic. Many are not aware of how destructive the cyberspace can be, and until then I do not believe the US can do this alone. What other countries do you think could potentially take the ‘lead’ in this cause?

      Henry Preston said:
      April 17, 2016 at 8:46 pm

      Tom, that’s a great point about the lack of international cooperation in cybercrime prosecution and investigation being a huge barrier to stopping these unconventional criminals. The issue here is that, like every other area of international politics, states are vying for supremacy, and unwilling to give up any power that they have to help other states in ways that could potentially hurt their own security situation. So while I hope that states can someday overcome the many barriers to cooperation, I do not think that a drastic shift in priorities will occur without an equally drastic cybercriminal action that crosses multiple geopolitical lines simultaneously.

    Michael LeFevre said:
    April 17, 2016 at 7:13 pm

    After watching the videos, and reading the article, I think the United States has done a well enough job so far in protecting it’s citizens, but there is always room for improvement. While Misha Glenny said, “One of the hackers I met when I was researching the book Dark Market, he was a very enterprising guy … he explained to me that he simply never would scam American cards because US law enforcement agencies, the FBI and the Secret Service, have what you call an extra-territorial jurisdiction, that they arrogate the right to themselves to go after people in countries outside of the United States, and that’s written into their cyber legislation, not many countries have that,” this is very intriguing and shows the steps the US has taken. But this is a collective, and requires the support and help of all governments around the world. The cyberspace allows for anyone to cause destruction, no matter their size or power in real life, which can be used for good and bad. We have seen both extremes, but unless we can regulate it, I do not think it will be beneficial, and ultimately opens the door to hackers stealing our information. Misha Glenny also stated that 95 percent of hackers are male, and have fully developed and acquired the skills necessary by their teenage years. It would be very hard to catch a teenager committing a crime in real life, but in cyberspace anything is possible, and I believe the US has to do more before confidential information, or millions of people’s information is hacked.

      Timothy Lasusa said:
      April 17, 2016 at 8:06 pm

      Michael, I think you do bring up a very strong point about how the US, despite being one of the major targets, has done a fairly decent job of protecting citizens. Obviously they could do a better job but things could be a lot worse. I liked the point that Glenny brought up in one of the videos about how Canada has had some serious struggles with cyber crime, and the US has been acting as a major partner in working with Canadian governments to take down these hackers. What this makes me wonder is if this has to do with the structure of the Canadian government. I remember reading one of the reports for the darknet essay and remembering how Canada actually had a larger number of darknet users in relation to its population. The author claimed that the reason for this was that more liberal countries often had larger numbers of darknet users and Canada was one of his examples.

    Timothy Lasusa said:
    April 17, 2016 at 7:28 pm

    After watching the videos on cyber crime, it made me think about how hackers will shape the future of the world. Thinking back to the things we have learned in this class about IOTs and new technologies that will be developed, it just goes to show how much hackers will be able to control and monitor the things we do as innocent citizens if we are not careful. These videos showed how simple hacking can be and without a basic knowledge on how to protect yourself, big issues can arise and it seems like there is very little governments can do to stop them. With all of the geo-politics that takes place when it comes to dealing with these hackers, it can make it impossible for governments to successfully stop cyber criminals unless they are within their own back yard. In addition, with the expansion of technology and platforms like the darknet, it will only make things harder for governments to successfully prevent cyber attacks from taking place. The best thing we can do as citizens is be as well informed as possible and do our best to not put ourselves at risk of being attacked.

      Moustafa said:
      April 17, 2016 at 11:03 pm

      I think Tim mentioned a very strong point that I mentioned too in my post, about the future. It is dangerous, because the people does not know how to use their social media in a safe way to avoid the hackers actions.

    Henry Preston said:
    April 17, 2016 at 8:28 pm

    The TED talk brought up some interesting information, such as the existence of cybercrime packs that connect hackers to one another in a collective manner that increases dispersion of hacking efforts across as many profitable targets as feasible possible. An added bonus to these packs is the technical support that hackers can get from the packs, a commonplace practice in nearly all firms, but not something usually associated with hackers.
    Another issue that was brought up was confusion over policing the internet. Since states have different views and interpret cyber crime in the same way as all other states, policing the internet is very difficult. This specific issue has been covered in previous classes, but resurfaces due to its importance in cybercrime.

      cscott66 said:
      April 17, 2016 at 9:42 pm

      I agree with you Henry especially in regards to policing the Internet. It’s so tough to distinguish jurisdiction and how to enforce law on the Internet. It also gets difficult because a country like the US needs to worry about keeping rights in tact when enforcing laws. Hindering civil rights will cause bigger issues but there still needs to be a way to police the Internet. Making hacking more difficult should be a priority of all governments to a huge problem doesn’t occur

    cscott66 said:
    April 17, 2016 at 9:38 pm

    Cyber crime is challenging the norms of national security because it is such a new phenomenon. The Internet is an ever changing realm that is constantly being upgraded and used for many more things. It’s hard to escape the Internet now a days and because of this, hacking is a serious threat to countries. Storing a lot of information and now using the Internet of things makes a hack a threat. Hackers are very smart and are gaining knowledge on how to do these attacks. These videos showed the minds behind hacking and show with a little bit of thought and preparation, hacking can be easily done. Countries now have to deal with not only land air and sea but now also a 4th front, cyber space. The Internet has created another front for war to take place and it’s a war that has never been dealt with before. It’s scary that attacks can now be done without people even knowing and also the common person not even really understanding the attack.

    Ness Billimoria said:
    April 17, 2016 at 10:10 pm

    Globally, cyber crime is an issue that requires a lot more attention that it currently receives. Looking at it from a US perspective, through the Ted video, we can see how a country like the US is struggling to curb this menace. This is scary considering the US government allocates such a high budget towards its police force, most other countries across the globe do not, so they fall even further behind. Again, there are no cyber borders stopping hackers from one part of the globe from attacking a website of a business (for example) in a completely different geography. Of course, small businesses that have merchant websites are the most susceptible to being victims of crime. On a global scale, there needs to be more centralised coordination at regional and interregional levels, to streamline the fight against cybercrime. This is the only way forward. Countries with better technological know-how need to help their foreign, less experienced, and poorer counterparts. This works to protect the interests of both parties involved.

      Moustafa said:
      April 17, 2016 at 10:43 pm

      I agree with you Ness, that there is not enough awareness on this topic. However, on a smaller scale, People need to be informed and educated about ways to protect their information from hackers. The government can only do so much. The public should start practicing safe setting security habits. This can be as simple as having different secure passwords for different accounts, as was mentioned in the Ted Talk.

    Moustafa said:
    April 17, 2016 at 10:21 pm

    After watching these videos, I started worrying about future technology. Everyone is talking about future technology and how it will help in everything, but on the other hand the technology will be a weapon in the hands of hackers. They will use it to steal our money and identifications. I was shocked after watching the Ted Talk because I realized that the photos we upload on social media like Instagram have a location
    tag which criminals can use to find out where we are and where we live. This new type of invasion of privacy will challenge the US’ normal laws, because new laws will now need to be set in place to protect the people from these crimes. Because this type of criminal activity is so secretive, the government will need to work more than ever before to find the criminals or prevent the crimes from happening. However, that will take a long time and will be stronger in the future because the government needs to catch up with the knowledge, information, and techniques that these cyberhackers keep reinventing and reperfecting.

    Cory Latour said:
    April 17, 2016 at 10:59 pm

    Misha Glenny’s talk on cyber violence and cyber crime was fascinating, as he detailed how fragile one’s own personal information stored on a computer or a tablet really is. It really is more necessary for government’s to enforce the cyber realm, because a cyber attacked can be launched by any connected entity anywhere in the world. For example, if one’s money in the U.S. was stolen and transferred to a foreign country that does not have strong ties with the United States, how would one expect to retrieve the money and see the appropriate justice sought for the offending entity? Yes, one’s money is insured by the FDIC, but there are so many new vulnerabilities in the connected world. At the very least, an attacker could make someone’s life hell if they wanted to.

    The question then becomes, how do states enforce/govern this new type of crime? A state wants to keep its citizens protected/safe, but it also has its own other interests to take into consideration. It would not be a stretch to say, that many/most states engage in shady behavior in the connected world. Furthermore, cyber attackers are highly skilled, and often belong to larger groups. For this reason, it is easy to see why justice can be difficult to deal out. There needs to be some sort of international guidelines/laws put into place, as enforcement activity against cyber criminals is, presently, inefficient.

    Jake Levin said:
    April 17, 2016 at 11:15 pm

    I feel that it is much easier to comprehend the potentially devastating consequences of cyber crime once you experience it first hand. Over winter break, my father’s credit card information was skimmed off of an ATM in Mexico. After multiple withdrawals of $300 over the span of a week, American Express was able to detect that something was awry and notified him about what was happening. Fortunately they refunded my dad the $3500 that was taken from his bank account, but the vulnerability and surprise he felt when he first received this information really drove home the point of how cyber crime is one of the most significant security threats in today’s society. It’s crazy to think that if he hadn’t been protected by his credit card company these criminals had complete control over his identity without anyone else knowing. A major thing that needs to be addressed regarding the issue of cyber crime is informing people about how routine acts such as buying gas or paying for a meal with a credit card can result in identity theft. Many people who commit cyber crimes have become sophisticated enough where they can easily avoid detection, so instead of putting most of our focus on catching online criminals I think governments and major corporations should devote lots of attention to informing people how they can avoid jeapordizing personal information online. Knowing not to share any personal information, trust anonymous people, and how to avoid sketchy technological situations is paramount to not being affected by cyber crime

    Michael LeFevre said:
    April 17, 2016 at 11:27 pm

    With the emergence of a cyberspace and cyber warfare, the legislation that will be implemented will be extremely difficult to construct to the current federal system. Governments and courts will be unable to keep a clear distinction between crimes committed on the Internet. I believe every case will be unique and require protests, and civil unrest, until the civilian is deemed correct. The fact that Edward Snowden is hiding in Hong Kong out of fear for his government, speaks to the fact that every case is unique. It is not only teenagers who are abusing this power, but Anonymous (etc..) organizations create unrest on the cyberspace, and will be virtually unable to track. Until governments are able to construct a distinct and consistent law for the cyberspace, they will never be able to successfully penalize someone.

    Cory Latour said:
    April 17, 2016 at 11:29 pm

    James Lynne’s TEDtalk was highly informative about the different methods cyber criminals employ to hack a computer or system. For example, he mentions the older USB trick, where an attacker goes into a business with coffee spilled on his resume. He asks the receptionist to plug in his USB and print him a new one. Once plugged in, the attacker has access to the computer’s command prompt, which can browse and launch all of the data stored on the computer. This example reminded me of the technique used by the main character in the USA Network show Mr. Robot–a popular show about a vigilante hacker. Other methods he mentions are fake anti-virus software, where he said people are actually now paying to get viruses on their computer. Also, plugging a script into an insecure website is another popular way cyber criminals target weak computers. Why is all of this so important? Because it shows the innovative and new was criminals will use to target people. It makes us consider the question: what method will they use next? How can we look out for it, before it happens to us? For this reason, cyber security is the only answer to cyber crime, and I would argue that we need to invest more resources into securing ourselves, and our country. Furthermore, we need more education on responsible computing. I did not know before watching the talk that GPS data was turned on in all of the photos I take on my phone (I have since turned it off). Implementing an early on education program on the importance of being safe online would be a great first step towards combatting cyber criminals.

    Jake Levin said:
    April 17, 2016 at 11:59 pm

    There has been a lot of discussion on this forum about how more cooperation is needed among powerful countries such as the U.S. and Chine to effectively combat the massive amount of cyber crime that is occurring around the world daily. However not a lot of talk had been devoted to how corrupt countries may start abusing the aspect of anonymity the web provides to further their political agendas. With so much access to the personal information of citizens, nations could easily commit identity theft, transmit viruses, or locate hot spots of revolutionary activity all with the intention of surpressing the rights of individuals they don’t like. Although the Internet is vital in promoting political freedom, the minimal regulation of dark net web activity in developing countries due to more pressing matters can have extremely negative social and economic implications for people that aren’t protected by their government or the corporation which they entrust their information with. Online policing needs to be done on a global scale to prevent cyber crimes that have no relevance to modern societies but can ruin the lives of people in developing ones

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